All required readings, listed in the schedule, are available online; these supplement the lectures by providing historical background on the development of scientific terminology and some points of grammar. Questions based on these readings will appear on the tests and final exam.

We will make extensive use of the etymologies found in English and technical dictionaries. The Oxford English Dictionary (Simpson and Weiner 1989) is the most comprehensive and accurate English dictionary available, though for quick reference I would recommend the Oxford Dictionary of English (Stevenson 2010), whose online version includes recordings of pronunciation; it is also included with Mac OS X.

Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (Venes 2013) and Stedman’s Medical Dictionary (Stegman et al. 2006) are excellent medical dictionaries with etymologies, available in the library’s reference collection and online; Senning (2007), in reference, is useful for understanding chemical names. Haubrich (2003) is a useful reference tool for examining the origins of medical words, and is on reserve at the library. is useful for finding Latin equivalents of anatomical terminology (see Gobée, Jansma, and DeRuiter 2011 for background on its methodology).

Classical dictionaries are necessary to fill in the details for more obscure terms. Available online through Logeion, Perseus, and various other sources are two of the most comprehensive dictionaries of Greek and Latin, respectively: Liddell, Scott, and Stuart Jones (1940) – for which a 1996 supplement is available in print – and Lewis and Short (1879). The latter of these is quite dated, and for the purposes of classical scholarship it has been replaced by the Oxford Latin Dictionary (Glare 2012), but this is only available in print.

You may also wish to make use of Ayers (1972), on reserve at the library, from which much of this course’s vocabulary and structure is derived; it includes additional exercises that you may find helpful.

About DOIs

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a permanent locator for a digital resource. These can be used to access the work through the University of Toronto’s subscriptions via the DOI resolver at either visit this address and enter the item’s identifier, or take the DOI link provided below and add after the host name. For example, Davis et al. (2014) can be accessed through the library at

The bibliographical data for the works listed below can be downloaded in CSL JSON or BibLaTeX format.


Borror, Donald J. 1960. Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms: Compiled from the Greek, Latin, and Other Languages, with Special Reference to Biological Terms and Scientific Names. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Brooks, Katie, ed. 2007. Classical Roots for Medics. Edinburgh: Chambers.

Chaballe, L.Y., ed. 1984. Elsevier’s Sugar Dictionary in Six Languages: English/American, French, Spanish, Dutch, German, and Latin. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Clason, W.E., ed. 1989. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Wild and Cultivated Plants in Latin, English, French, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, and German. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Croteau, Clément, ed. 1991. Lexique des fruits: Lexique français-anglais-latin. Québec: Office de la langue française.

Dorland, W.A. Newman. 2012. Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary. 32nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier.

Eylenbosch, Ernest, ed. 1995. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Pests and Diseases in Useful Plants: In English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Dutch, and Latin. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Ferlin, Guy, ed. 1989. Elsevier’s Dictionary of the World’s Game and Wildlife: In English, Latin, French, German, Dutch, and Spanish with Equivalents in Afrikaans and Kiswahili, with Thirteen Original Drawings by the Author. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Fonahn, Adolf Mauritz. 1922. Arabic and Latin Anatomical Terminology, Chiefly from the Middle Ages. Kristiania (Oslo): Dybwad.

Glare, P.G.W., ed. 2012. Oxford Latin Dictionary. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gould, George M., and Walter L. Pyle, eds. 1901. A Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine and Surgery: A Concise Reference Book, Alphabetically Arranged of Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics, Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and the Various Specialties, with Particular Reference to Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia: Blakiston.

Grandtner, Miroslav M., M.M. Grandtner, and Julien Chevrette, eds. 2005. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Trees: With Names in Latin, English, French, Spanish and Other Languages. 2 vols. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Haubrich, William S. 2003. Medical Meanings: A Glossary of Word Origins. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians.

Jaeger, Edmund C. 1931. A Dictionary of Greek and Latin Combining Forms Used in Zoological Names. 2nd ed. London: Baillière.

———. 1959. A Source-Book of Biological Names and Terms. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Thomas.

Jørgensen, Harriet I. 1958. Nomina Avium Europaearum. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.

Konstantinidis, Giannis, ed. 2005. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Medicine and Biology: In English, Greek, German, Italian, and Latin. 2 vols. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Latham, R.E., D.R. Howlett, and R.K. Ashdowne, eds. 1975–2013. Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources. Oxford: Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press.

Lewis, Charlton T., and Charles Short, eds. 1879. A Latin Dictionary: Founded on Andrews’ Edition of Freund’s Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Liddell, Henry George, Robert Scott, and Henry Stuart Jones, eds. 1940. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Liddell, Henry George, Robert Scott, Henry Stuart Jones, and P.G.W. Glare, eds. 1996. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th ed. with revised supplement. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Macura, Paul, ed. 1979. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Botany: In English, French, German, Latin, and Russian. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Marcovecchio, Enrico. 1993. Dizionario etimologico storico dei termini medici. Firenze: Festina Lente.

Morton, I.D., and Chloe Morton, eds. 1977. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Food Science and Technology: In Four Languages, English, French, Spanish, German, with an Index of Latin Names. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Niermeyer, J.F., and C. van de Kieft. 2002. Mediae Latinitatis lexicon minus: Medieval Latin Dictionary/Lexique latin médiéval/Mittellateinishces Wörterbuch. Edited by J.W.J. Burgers. Rev. ed. 2 vols. Leiden: Brill.

Okáli, Ilja, Miroslava Dulová, and Pavel Mokráň, eds. 2000. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Invertebrates (Excluding Insects): In Latin, English, French, German, and Spanish. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Onions, C.T., ed. 1966. The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Osol, Arthur. 1972. Blakiston’s Gould Medical Dictionary; a Modern Comprehensive Dictionary of the Terms Used in All Branches of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Schneeweiss, R. 1982. Dictionary of Cereal Processing and Cereal Chemistry in English, German, French, Latin, and Russian. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Schroeter, A.I., V.A. Panasi︠u︡k, and V.A. Bykov, eds. 1999. Dictionary of Plant Names: Over 100,000 Names of About 10,000 Species and Varieties of Flowering Plants and Fern-Like Plants in Latin, Russian, English and Chinese (Hieroglyphic and Latin Transliteration). Königstein: Koeltz.

Senning, Alexander, ed. 2007. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Chemoetymology: The Whies and Whences of Chemical Nomenclature and Terminology. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Simpson, J.A., and E.S.C. Weiner, eds. 1989. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 20 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Skinner, Henry Alan. 1949. The Origin of Medical Terms. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

———. 1970. The Origin of Medical Terms. 2nd ed., corrected. New York: Hafner.

Stegman, Julie K., Eric Branger, Tiffany Piper, Thomas W. Filardo, John H. Dirckx, Raymond Lukens, and William R. Hensyl, eds. 2006. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. 28th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Stevenson, Angus, ed. 2010. Oxford Dictionary of English. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tosheva, T., M. Djarova, and B. Deliĭska, eds. 2000. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Agriculture: In English, German, French, Russian and Latin. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Venes, Donald, ed. 2013. Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. 22nd ed. Philadelphia: Davis.

Wain, Henry. 1958. The Story Behind the Word: Some Interesting Origins of Medical Terms. Springfield, IL: Thomas.

White, Richard C., ed. 2003. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Plant Names of North America, Including Mexico: In Latin, Spanish (Mexican and European) and English (American). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Williams, Gareth, and Károly Hunyadi, eds. 1987. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Weeds of Eastern Europe: Their Common Names and Importance in Latin, Albanian, Bulgarian, Czech, German, English, Greek, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croat, and Slovak. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Williams, Gareth, ed. 1982. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Weeds of Western Europe: Their Common Names and Importance in Latin, Danish, German, English, Spanish, Finnish, French, Icelandic, Italian, Dutch, Norwegian, Portuguese, and Swedish. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Woods, Robert S. 1944. The Naturalist’s Lexicon: A List of Classical Greek and Latin Words Used, or Suitable for Use, in Biological Nomenclature, with Abridged English-Classical Supplement. Pasadena: Abbey Garden Press.

Wrobel, M., and G. Creber, eds. 1996. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Plant Names: In Latin, English, French, German, and Italian. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

———, eds. 1998. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Fungi and Fungal Plant Diseases: In Latin, English, German, French, and Italian. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Wrobel, M., ed. 2004a. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Amphibians in Latin, English, German, French, and Italian. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

———, ed. 2004b. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Reptiles: In Latin, English, German, French and Italian. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

———, ed. 2007. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Mammals: In Latin, English, German, French and Italian. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Zykov, K.D., ed. 2002. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Nature and Hunting in English, French, Russian, German, and Latin. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

History and Usage

Banay, George L. 1948. ‘An Introduction to Medical Terminology. I. Greek and Latin Derivations’. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 36 (1): 1–27.

———. 1949. ‘An Introduction to Medical Terminology. II. Terms Drawn From Modern Languages’. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 37 (2): 152–63.

Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette. 2002. ‘Languages in Chemistry’. In The Cambridge History of Science, vol. 5, The Modern Physical and Mathematical Sciences, edited by Mary Jo Nye, 174–90. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521571999.011.

Beretta, Marco. 1993. The Enlightenment of Matter: The Definition of Chemistry from Agricola to Lavoisier. Uppsala Studies in History of Science 15. Canton, MA: Science History Publications.

Bezas, Georges, and Alexandre Lins Werneck. 2012. ‘Greek Language: Analysis of the Cardiologic Anatomical Etymology: Past and Present’. Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular 27 (2): 318–26. doi:10.5935/1678-9741.20120050.

Boudon-Millot, Véronique. 2014. ‘Greek and Roman Patients Under Galen’s Gaze: A Doctor at the Crossroads of Two Cultures’. In ‘Greek’ and ‘Roman’ in Latin Medical Texts: Studies in Cultural Change and Exchange in Ancient Medicine, edited by Brigitte Maire, 5–24. Studies in Ancient Medicine 42. Leiden: Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004273863_003.

Burnett, Charles. 2013. ‘Translation and Transmission of Greek and Islamic Science to Latin Christendom’. In The Cambridge History of Science, vol. 2, Medieval Science, edited by David C. Lindberg and Michael H. Shank, 341–64. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CHO9780511974007.016.

Cascarini, L. 2007. ‘Mandibular Etymologies’. British Dental Journal 203 (4): 209–10. doi:10.1038/bdj.2007.733.

Chiapas-Gasca, Karla, Luiz Fernando De Souza Passos, Sandra Lúcia Euzébio Ribeiro, and Pablo Villaseñor-Ovies. 2012. ‘Nomina Anatomica. Anatomic Terminology and the Old French Terminology’. Reumatología Clinica 8, supplement 2 (December): 3–9. doi:10.1016/j.reuma.2012.10.007.

Cooper, N., and L. Cascarini. 2008. ‘Maxillary Etymologies’. British Dental Journal 205 (7): 393–94. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2008.844.

Davis, Matthew C., Christoph J. Griessenauer, Anand N. Bosmia, R. Shane Tubbs, and Mohammadali M. Shoja. 2014. ‘The Naming of the Cranial Nerves: A Historical Review’. Clinical Anatomy 27 (1): 14–19. doi:10.1002/ca.22345.

Dirckx, John H. 1977. ‘Hybrid Words in Medical Terminology’. Journal of the American Medical Association 238 (19): 2043–45. doi:10.1001/jama.1977.03280200055019.

———. 1981. ‘Blues of a Guest Editorialist: Dictionaries and the Literate Minority’. The Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology 7 (4): 291–94. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4725.1981.tb00641.x.

———. 1983a. The Language of Medicine, Its Evolution, Structure, and Dynamics. 2nd ed. New York: Praeger.

———. 1983b. ‘Dermatologic Terms in the De Medicina of Celsus’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 5 (4): 363–69. doi:10.1097/00000372-198308000-00005.

———. 1985. ‘And Now a Few Words About Sex’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 7 (1): 43–48. doi:10.1097/00000372-198502000-00009.

———. 1987. ‘A Little Lexicon of Archaic and Obsolete Medical Terms’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 9 (1): 76–79. doi:10.1097/00000372-198702000-00014.

———. 1988. ‘Latin Is Alive and Well’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 10 (3): 270–74. doi:10.1097/00000372-198806000-00013.

———. 1989a. ‘Let’s Put It This Way. A Medical Writing Clinic’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 11 (1): 87–92. doi:10.1097/00000372-198902000-00013.

———. 1989b. ‘A Glossary of Newspeak’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 11 (6): 588–91. doi:10.1097/00000372-198912000-00015.

———. 1990. ‘More Living Latin’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 12 (4): 422–29. doi:10.1097/00000372-199008000-00016.

———. 1991. ‘Words Worth Watching’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 13 (1): 84–90. doi:10.1097/00000372-199102000-00014.

———. 1992. ‘Doctor, I’m [Sic]’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 14 (4): 369–71. doi:10.1097/00000372-199208000-00014.

———. 1997. ‘Recurring Errors in Medical Latin’. Terminology 4 (1): 35–53. doi:10.1075/term.4.1.04dir.

———. 1998. ‘The Modern Pronunciation of Latin’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 20 (1): 103–8. doi:10.1097/00000372-199802000-00019.

———. 1999. ‘Little Things That Count’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 21 (2): 204–7. doi:10.1097/00000372-199904000-00018.

———. 2000a. ‘Pestilence Narratives in Classical Literature: A Study in Creative Imitation. I. Homer, Sophocles, Thucydides, and Lucretius’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 22 (2): 197–202. doi:10.1097/00000372-200004000-00021.

———. 2000b. ‘Pestilence Narratives in Classical Literature: A Study in Creative Imitation. II. Virgil, Ovid, Seneca, and Silius Italicus’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 22 (5): 459–64. doi:10.1097/00000372-200010000-00015.

———. 2001. ‘More Than One: Plurality in Thought and Language’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 23 (1): 69–75. doi:10.1097/00000372-200102000-00014.

———. 2004. ‘Dermatologic Terms in the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 26 (6): 511–13. doi:10.1097/00000372-200412000-00012.

———. 2005. ‘The Doctor’s Dyslexicon: 101 Pitfalls in Medical Language’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 27 (1): 86–88. doi:10.1097/

———. 2006a. ‘Anatomical Nomenclature: History’. In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, edited by Keith Brown, 2nd ed., 244–52. Oxford: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04268-1.

———. 2006b. ‘Greek and Latin in Medical Terminology’. In Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, edited by Julie K. Stegman, Eric Branger, Tiffany Piper, Thomas W. Filardo, John H. Dirckx, Raymond Lukens, and William R. Hensyl, 28th ed., appendix 9. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

———. 2007. ‘Isidore of Seville on the Origins and Meanings of Medical Terms’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 29 (6): 581–83. doi:10.1097/DAD.0b013e3181597a43.

Dirckx, John H., and Morris Leider. 1981. ‘A Description and Directory of Plural Forms of Medical Latin Words and Terms’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 3 (1): 41–53. doi:10.1097/00000372-198100310-00005.

Díez Arroyo, Marisa. 2013. ‘Scientific Language in Skin-Care Advertising: Persuading Through Opacity’. Revista española de lingüística aplicada 26: 197–213.

Džuganová, Božena. 1998. ‘Word Analysis – A Useful Tool in Learning the Language of Medicine in English’. Bratislavské Lekárske Listy/Bratislava Medical Journal 99 (10): 551–53.

———. 2002. ‘A Brief Outline of the Development of Medical English’. Bratislavské Lekárske Listy/Bratislava Medical Journal 103 (6): 223–27.

———. 2006. ‘Negative Affixes in Medical English’. Bratislavské Lekárske Listy/Bratislava Medical Journal 107 (8): 332–35.

———. 2007. ‘Seemingly or Partially Negative Prefixes in Medical English’. Bratislavské Lekárske Listy/Bratislava Medical Journal 108 (4-5): 233–36.

———. 2008. ‘Synonymy of Negative Prefixes Concerns Also Medical English’. Bratislavské Lekárske Listy/Bratislava Medical Journal 109 (5): 242–44.

———. 2013. ‘English Medical Terminology – Different Ways of Forming Medical Terms’. JAHR 4 (7): 55–69.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. 2005. ‘The Book of Nature Transformed: Printing and the Rise of Modern Science’. In The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe, 2nd ed., 209–85. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139197038.010.

Fabry, Paul, Robert Baud, Anita Burgun, and Christian Lovis. 2006. ‘Amplification of Terminologia Anatomica by French Language Terms Using Latin Terms Matching Algorithm: A Prototype for Other Language’. International Journal of Medical Informatics 75 (7): 542–52. doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2005.08.008.

Frank, J. Howard. 2008a. ‘Pronunciation of Scientific Names and Terms’. Edited by John L. Capinera. Encyclopedia of Entomology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/0-306-48380-7_3441.

———. 2008b. ‘Scientific Names and Other Words from Latin and Greek’. Edited by John L. Capinera. Encyclopedia of Entomology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_4063.

Gal, Joseph. 2011. ‘Stereochemical Vocabulary for Structures That Are Chiral but Not Asymmetric: History, Analysis, and Proposal for a Rational Terminology’. Chirality 23 (8): 647–59. doi:10.1002/chir.20955.

Garner, Harold. 2014. ‘The Case of the Stolen Words’. Scientific American 310 (3): 64–67. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0314-64.

Giba, John, and Ramón Ribes. 2011. ‘Latin and Greek in English’. In Preparing and Delivering Scientific Presentations, 143–48. Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15889-6_11.

Gobée, O. Paul, Daniël Jansma, and Marco C. DeRuiter. 2011. ‘ Heading for an Online Solution to the Anatomical Synonym Problem. Hurdles in Data-Reuse from the Terminologia Anatomica and the Foundational Model of Anatomy and Potentials for Future Development’. Clinical Anatomy 24 (7): 817–30. doi:10.1002/ca.21185.

Haverling, Gerd V.M. 2014. ‘On Terminological Variation in the Late Latin Translation of the Hippocratic Aphorisms’. In ‘Greek’ and ‘Roman’ in Latin Medical Texts: Studies in Cultural Change and Exchange in Ancient Medicine, edited by Brigitte Maire, 368–82. Studies in Ancient Medicine 42. Leiden: Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004273863_021.

Herold, Bernardo. 2013. ‘Lost in Nomenclature Translation’. Chemistry International 35 (3): 12–15. doi:10.1515/ci.2013.35.3.12.

Holomáňová, Anna, Alena Ivanová, and I. Brucknerova. 2004. ‘History and the Roots of Angiology’. Bratislavské Lekárske Listy/Bratislava Medical Journal 105 (1): 22–24.

Ivanová, Alena, and Anna Holomáňová. 2001. ‘Anatomic Nomenclature by Vesalius’. Bratislavské Lekárske Listy/Bratislava Medical Journal 102 (3): 169–73.

Johnson, Francis R. 1944. ‘Latin Versus English: The Sixteenth-Century Debate over Scientific Terminology’. Studies in Philology 41 (2): 109–35.

Kachlík, David, Václav Báča, Ivana Bozděchová, Pavel Čech, and Vladimír Musil. 2008. ‘Anatomical Terminology and Nomenclature: Past, Present and Highlights’. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy 30 (6): 459–66. doi:10.1007/s00276-008-0357-y.

Karenberg, Axel. 1994. ‘Reconstructing a Doctrine: Galen on Apoplexy’. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 3 (2): 85–101. doi:10.1080/09647049409525595.

———. 2003. ‘„Die Poesie in Wirklichkeit verwandeln”. Antike Sagengestalten in der modernen Medizin’. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 128 (51/52): 2698–2706. doi:10.1055/s-2003-812548.

———. 2004. ‘Sünder und Selige. Biblische Gestalten und christliche Heilige in der modernen Medizin’. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 129 (51/52): 2757–65. doi:10.1055/s-2004-836108.

———. 2005a. Amor, Äskulap & Co.: Klassische Mythologie in der Sprache der modernen Medizin. Stuttgart: Schattauer.

———. 2005b. ‘Poesie und Pathologie. Literarische Figuren als Vorbilder für Krankheitsbegriffe’. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 130 (51/52): 2971–78. doi:10.1055/s-2005-923338.

———. 2009. ‘The Greco-Roman World’. In History of Neurology, edited by Stanley Finger, François Boller, and Kenneth L. Tyler, 49–59. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 3rd ser., 17 (95). Edinburgh: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/S0072-9752(08)02105-2.

———. 2012–2013. ‘The World of Gods and the Body of Man: Mythological Origins of Modern Anatomical Terms’. Anatomy 6-7: 7–22. doi:10.2399/ana.11.142.

Karenberg, Axel, and Hans Förstl. 2006. ‘Dementia in the Greco-Roman World’. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 244 (1–2): 5–9. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2005.12.004.

Karenberg, Axel, and Irmgard Hort. 1998a. ‘Medieval Descriptions and Doctrines of Stroke: Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Part I: The Struggle for Terms and Theories – Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages (300–800)’. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 7 (3): 162–73. doi:10.1076/jhin.

———. 1998b. ‘Medieval Descriptions and Doctrines of Stroke: Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Part II: Between Galenism and Aristotelism – Islamic Theories of Apoplexy (800–1200)’. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 7 (3): 174–85. doi:10.1076/jhin.

———. 1998c. ‘Medieval Descriptions and Doctrines of Stroke: Preliminary Analysis of Select Sources. Part III: Multiplying Speculations – The High and Late Middle Ages (1000–1450)’. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 7 (3): 186–200. doi:10.1076/jhin.

Karenberg, Axel, and Christian Leitz. 2001. ‘Headache in Magical and Medical Papyri of Ancient Egypt’. Cephalalgia 21 (9): 911–16. doi:10.1046/j.1468-2982.2001.00274.x.

Karenberg, Axel, and Ferdinand Peter Moog. 2004. ‘Next Emperor, Please! No End to Retrospective Diagnostics’. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 13 (2): 143–49. doi:10.1080/0964704049052158.

Krmpotić-Nemanić, J., and I. Vinter. 2003. ‘Missing and Incorrect Terms in Terminologia Anatomica (1998)’. Annals of Anatomy/Anatomischer Anzeiger 185 (4): 387–88. doi:10.1016/S0940-9602(03)80067-5.

Lawrence, Susan C. 2009. ‘Anatomy, Histology, and Cytology’. In The Cambridge History of Science, vol. 6, Modern Life and Earth Sciences, edited by Peter J. Bowler and John V. Pickstone, 265–84. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521572019.016.

Leider, Morris, and John H. Dirckx. 1982. ‘A Glossary of Selected Classical and Neo-Classical Expressions Apt or Adaptable in Medical Writing’. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 4 (1): 25–38. doi:10.1097/00000372-198202000-00005.

Leider, Morris, and Morris Rosenblum. 1961. ‘What Does It Mean? An Experiment in Writing a Dermatologic Dictionary’. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology 36 (6): 441–49. doi:10.1038/jid.1961.68.

Lindberg, David C. 2007. The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, Prehistory to A.D. 1450. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lydiatt, Daniel D., and Gregory S. Bucher. 2010. ‘The Historical Latin and Etymology of Selected Anatomical Terms of the Larynx’. Clinical Anatomy 23 (2): 131–44. doi:10.1002/ca.20912.

Marečková, Elena, František Šimon, and Ladislav Červený. 2001. ‘On the New Anatomical Nomenclature’. Annals of Anatomy/Anatomischer Anzeiger 183 (3): 201–7. doi:10.1016/S0940-9602(01)80215-6.

———. 2002. ‘Latin as the Language of Medical Terminology: Some Remarks on Its Role and Prospects’. Swiss Medical Weekly 132 (41–42): 581–87.

Marx, Franz Josef, and Axel Karenberg. 2009. ‘History of the Term “Prostate”’. The Prostate 69 (2): 208–13. doi:10.1002/pros.20871.

———. 2010. ‘Uro-Words Making History: Ureter and Urethra’. The Prostate 70 (9): 952–58. doi:10.1002/pros.21129.

Matusz, Petru. 2010. ‘Misleading Latin/English Equivalents for Some Liver Terms in Terminologia Anatomica’. Anatomical Sciences Education 3 (3): 156–57. doi:10.1002/ase.133.

Moog, Ferdinand Peter, and Axel Karenberg. 2002. ‘Toxicology in the Old Testament: Did the High Priest Alcimus Die of Acute Aconitine Poisoning?’ Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicological Reviews 21 (3): 151–56. doi:10.1007/BF03256190.

———. 2003a. ‘Heilige als Patrone Gegen den Schlaganfall’. Early Science and Medicine 8 (3): 196–209. doi:10.1163/157338203X00062.

———. 2003b. ‘Between Horror and Hope: Gladiator’s Blood as a Cure for Epileptics in Ancient Medicine’. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 12 (2): 137–43. doi:10.1076/jhin.

———. 2003c. ‘St. Francis Came at Dawn: The Miraculous Recovery of a Hemiplegic Monk in the Middle Ages’. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 213 (1–2): 15–17. doi:10.1016/S0022-510X(03)00121-7.

———. 2004. ‘Roman Emperors Suffering from Apoplexy: The Medical and Historical Significance of Classical Literary Sources’. Journal of Medical Biography 12 (1): 43–50. doi:10.1177/096777200401200112.

Moog, Ferdinand Peter, Axel Karenberg, and Friedrich Moll. 2005a. ‘The Catheter and Its Use in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages’. The Journal of Urology 174 (2): 439–41. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000165388.71483.fb.

———. 2005b. ‘The Catheter and Its Use from Hippocrates to Galen’. The Journal of Urology 174 (4.1): 1196–98. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000173910.99371.13.

Musil, Vladimír, Zdeněk Suchomel, Petra Malinová, Josef Stingl, Martin Vlček, and Marek Vácha. 2014. ‘The History of Latin Terminology of Human Skeletal Muscles (from Vesalius to the Present)’. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, May. doi:10.1007/s00276-014-1305-7.

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